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Table Manners






Rice cake means all kinds of foods, which are made of the grain powders by kneading the powder with water and steaming it, in which rice cakes such as white rice cake (Hintteok), steamed rice cake (Sirutteok), rice cake coated with beam powder (Injeolmi), rice cake steamed on a layer of pine needles (Songpyeon), flower shaped rice cake, pan-fried rice cake (Juak) and dumpling coated with beam paste (Gyeongdan) are included.

Rice cake is a food which has been developed together with the lives of Korean people and unique sentiment and culture are contained in it. And also the combination of its taste, nutrition, texture and flavor is rather scientific. The taste, flavors and colors of rice cakes are diversified depending on season and region and rice cakes are natural food which is very good for health. The ingredients of rice cake are mostly natural foods and the ingredients are used in the season in which they are produced, and the mixture of the ingredients such as rice, grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables contains all five major nutrients with medicinal nature to some extent. Addition of various edible flowers, herb medicines and natural coloring agents and natural flavoring agent makes rice cake more luxurious and graceful. With the harmony of colors from seasons and regions, rice cake has the meaning of the sentiment for mutual help and collaboration by sharing the rice cake with neighbors.

Hangwa (Oil-and-honey pastry) means Korean traditional cake or cookie. The making method is far more diversified compared to that of western cakes or biscuits, while allowing longer period of storage than that of western cakes or biscuits without using inflating agent and preserving agent at all. Hangwa is pure natural and healthy snack and is good for health as good as medicine. Glutinous rice is a main ingredient and most ingredients are natural plant foods, especially some herb ingredients such as apricot stone, raspberry and pine pollen are used. That is why Hangwa has outstanding nutrition with even medicinal efficacy to some extent. Color and flavor are made using natural dyestuffs and natural flavoring agents while well balanced nutrition can be taken depending on the combination of main ingredients and subsidiary ingredients.





As the agricultural age was unfolded in full scale entering into the Three States age and the Unified Silla age, total grain outputs, especially rice output was significantly increased and therefore rice cakes using grains other than rice were diversified accordingly. Rice cakes are further developed in Goryeo age, and the rice cakes are made by general people for occasionally prepared special foods for ordinary times not as special foods for upper class people, festive days and sacrificial rites only. Entering into Joseon Dynasty, rice cake was positioned as essential food for various ceremonial events such as marriage ceremonies, funeral rites and sacrificial rites as well as large and small banquets, and such customs and practices are inherited as tradition and customs even nowadays.